Washington, Mar 9 (ANI): Scientists working with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have obtained a uniquely close-up look at the brightest gravitationally magnified galaxy yet discovered.
The imagery, taken by researchers from the University of Chicago, offers a visually striking example of gravitational lensing, in which one massive object's gravitational field can magnify and distort the light coming from another object behind
Such optical tricks stem from Einstein's theory of general relativity, which describes how gravity can warp space and time, including bending the path that light travels.
In this case, gravity from the galaxy cluster RCS2 032727-132623 bent and amplified the light coming from a much more distant galaxy, 10 billion light-years from Earth.
This "gravitational telescope" creates a vast arc of light, as if the distant galaxy had been reflected in a funhouse mirror. The UChicago team reconstructed what the distant galaxy really looks like, using computational tools that reversed the effect of gravitational lensing.
"What's happening here is a manifestation of general relativity," Michael Gladders, assistant professor in astronomy and astrophysics at Uchicago, said.
"Instead of seeing the normal, faint image of that distant source, you see highly distorted, highly magnified, and in this case, multiple images of the source caused by the intervening gravitational mass," he said.
The cosmic lens gave the UChicago team the unusual opportunity to see what a galaxy looked like 10 billion years ago. The reconstructed image of the galaxy revealed regions of star formation glowing like bright points of light. These are much brighter than any star-formation region in Earth's home galaxy, the Milky Way.
In 2006 the Chicago astronomers used the Very Large Telescope in Chile to measure the arc's distance and calculated that the galaxy appears more than three times brighter than previously discovered lensed galaxies.
Last year, Jane Rigby of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and the Chicago team imaged the arc with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3.
According to Gladders, using this gravitational lens as a telescope offers two major scientific opportunities. First, "It gives us a look at that very distant source with a precision and fidelity that we couldn't otherwise achieve."
Secondly, it provides an opportunity to learn something about the lens-forming mass, which is dominated by dark matter.
"It's really a way of looking at the nature of dark matter," Gladders said.
Dark matter accounts for nearly 90 percent of all matter in the universe, yet its identity remains one of the biggest mysteries of modern science.
Keren Sharon, a postdoctoral scholar at Uchicago's Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, led the effort to perform a detailed reconstruction of the lensed galaxy.
Sharon painstakingly created a computer reconstruction of the gravitational lens, then reverse-engineered the distorted image to determine the distant galaxy's actual appearance.
"It's a little bit of an art, but there's a lot of physics in it. That's the beauty of it," Sharon said.
"It was a fun puzzle to solve, especially when we had such great data," she said.
Through spectroscopy, the spreading out of light into its constituent colours, the team plans to analyse the distant galaxy's star-forming regions from the inside out to better understand why they are forming so many stars.
The team also has obtained data from one of the twin Magellan Telescopes to help them determine why the galaxy, which is 10 billion light years away, looks so irregular.
"It's not like we have something to compare it to.
"We don't know what other galaxies at the same distance look like at this level of detail," she added.
The study has been published in Astrophysical Journal. (ANI)
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