History of Bihar has credit for many unforgettable events in the history which given a new direction to the world. It is the land where Prince Gautam attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, which become a birthplace of Budhism. Bihar has also the credit where Lord Mahavir got his enlightenment and nirvana. The tenth Guru of Sikh religion Guru Govind Singh was born in Patna and attained sainthood on the very place.
In the history of Bihar; Magadh dynasty dominated a key role in shaping the politics of entire country during Maurya and Gupta dynasty and Bihar has given many Greatest kings like Ashoka and Chandragupta Maurya; who have created many milestones in the ancient history of India. Vaishali, which was the center of the Lichchavi kingdom in northern Bihar, has the honor to be one of the oldest republics of the world.
Ashoka was the great ruler of the Maurya dynasty who established Bihar on the map of the world by his strong power and religious thoughts. Ashoka described his teaching by Edicts inscribing on stone pillars, which were planted across his kingdom. Ashoka was a great conquer and his empire extended from across the India. He sent his son Prince Mahendra and daughter Sanghmitra for the disseminating of Budhism to the rest part of the world.
Nalanda is another historical milestone of Bihar to the rest part of the world where the world's first seat of higher learning known as Nalanda University established during Gupta period. It has attracted many scholars from the rest part of the world for the learning and knowledge. It was a major center for Budhist education and culture where students from China, Japan and Tibbet came for the learning education.
Bihar lost its golden glory, prestige, its arts and culture heritage in medieval era, which was attained in its ancient times. In the many ups and downs during this period, there was a ruler, which made its own significance in medieval time, and he was Sher Khan Sur or Sheh Shah. The afghan ruler continued the heritage and traditions of Ashoka, Chandragupta Maurya and Gupta dynasties of ancient king of Bihar and established its own empire and extended it up to Punjab. He was not only a ferocious warrior but also a noble administrator.
Bihar has its own historical significance during British rule and many people became leading participants in India's freedom struggle. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Jai Prakash Narayan and other personalities gave the new horizon of struggle of Bihar. Dr. Rajendra Prasad becomes the first President of India after independence and no one can forget Jai Prakash Narayan alias JP for his nationwide movement. Mahatma Gandhi started his freedom struggle from Champaran, a historical and important place in Bihar.