Arthritis is the disease commonly referred to the joint disorder characterized by joint pain, inflammation in the joint, pain in body movement and consequent factors of disability in physical activities. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis among which some of the major types are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, septic arthritis, etc. Millions of people, especially older people all over the globe are suffering from the disease.
The major cause of maximum types of arthritis is traced to the factors associated with life style and living habits beside other clinical causes. Consumption of certain food items containing uric acid and other harmful food habits, life style habits resulting lack of body movement or excessive and irregular body movement, lack of regular physical rest, psychic factors like stress are considered responsible for the onset of arthritis.
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis as the most common and grueling form of the disease is still declared to be permanently non curable and only treatment for their cure rests with life style adjustments, nutritional treatment, herbal treatment and ayurveda.
Arthritis means the joint pains caused from inflammation of one or more joint bones. The term Arthritis is derived from the Greek word Arthro (means joints) + itis (means inflammation). In plural it is called arthritides.
Arthritis is one of the most common bone diseases in adults and currently it is increasing very rapidly in the entire world due to our sluggish life styles, wrong diets and lack of physical exercise which are also making us the patient of high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity. It can affect persons differently and is more commonly found in adults above the age group of 65 years irrespective of all races and ethnic groups. But, nowadays, Arthritis is spreading very quickly in all age group people.
Arthritis is an autoimmune degenerative disease of bones that breaks down the joint's cartilage which resultant into severe joints pains, swelling of the joints, hardness of the muscles and immobility of the related parts or organs.
According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a US federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services headquartered in Greater Atlanta, one out of every five Americans (an estimated 50-millions) are suffering from any types of arthritis. Out of over hundred types of arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) affects most.
The CDC reports say:
Common Causes of Arthritis:
Though there have been over 100 types of arthritis diagnose, which have specific causes but the common causes of Arthritis are: the inflammation of bones or joints due to diseases or accident or virus/bacterial infection, and the wear and tear of cartilages and bones, which protect the bone from rubbing and allowing them to move freely.
Arthritis can also occurred from autoimmune system in which body's immune system mistakenly attack healthy tissues and damages cartilages and bones.
Untreated fracture can also reformed as a type of arthritis.
Risk Factors in Arthritis:
The major risk factor in Arthritis includes that most forms of arthritis are genetic inheritance that inherited from parents to children. On the other hand, trauma-related arthritis is non-inherited and related to the risk of injury from specific activities.
Joints pain can occur due to several reasons including wear and tear of the ligaments, bone tendons and arthritis disease. The acute arthritis go away when the causes go end or get some treatment while chronic arthritis need long-term cure.
There are over hundred types of arthritis found in human beings but amongst major diagnosed arthritis are:
Osteoarthritis, Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis and infectious arthritis caused by disease, bacteria, virus or any other foreign bodies are most commonly forms of Arthritis in which Osteoarthritis is found most humans irrespective of region, race, age and sex.
Osteoarthritis is the most commonly found types of arthritis in human beings, which mostly occurs in elderly persons. It is chronic degenerative disorder that damages cartilage (a flexible connecting tissues resides between bones and muscles, which works as cushion and absorbs shocks). If cartilage is stiff, it can be broken out complete, which causes severe joint pain, redness, warmth, rigidness of the joints, inflammation and malady feelings.
Osteoarthritis mostly occurs in major joints like knees, elbows, shoulders and hips. It also affects the small joints like fingers. As the cartilage becomes damaged tendons and ligaments become stretched, causing pain. Eventually the bones may rub against each other causing very severe pain.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA):
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is found in children and adolescents below the age of 16 years and due to its occurrence in children, it is called Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. It is an autoimmune disorders in which it affects one or more joints. Sometimes, it also affects the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Literary, JRA is an umbrella term used for all sorts of arthritis found in children and adolescents.
There are various kinds of JRA diagnosed in children primarily known as Oligoarthritis (a case in which four or less joints are affected within the first six months), Polyarthritis (a case when more than five or joints are affected during the first six months), Systemic (a case in which other body parts are also swelled particularly the spleen or the membranes that covering the lungs and heart), and Enthesitis-related (a case in which inflammation occurs in the entheses, or sites where tendons attach to the bone) etc.
Some other forms of JIA include juvenile lupus, juvenile scleroderma, juvenile psoriatic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis etc.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the second most commonly types of arthritis that affects the adults and elderly persons' flexible joints like wrist. But it can happen in other bone joints and in all age groups. Besides, joints, RA also affects other body parts particularly eyes, mouth and lungs. It is an autoimmune disorder which actual cause is still unknown. The autoimmune system of the suffering patient mistakenly signals to immune system to attack on healthy cells, which resultant into Rheumatoid Arthritis. Infection, genes, and hormone changes may be linked to the disease. Women are more prone to RA than men.
Infectious Arthritis is another major cause of arthritis, which happens due to occurred infection in the body due to infectious agents like bacteria, virus, mycobacterial, fungus etc. It can happen to anyone without discriminating the age, sex and race, who have other chronic infectious diseases. It is also known as septic arthritis. It is considered as medical emergency as infectious arthritis can affect the joints and other body parts very rapidly even within within few days from occurring. Besides joints, it also affects other body parts like eyes, mouth, lungs, excretory system and liver.
Viruses that can cause septic arthritis include hepatitis A, B, and C, parvovirus B19, herpes viruses, HIV (AIDS virus), HTLV-1, adenovirus, coxsackie viruses, mumps, and ebola. Fungi that can cause septic arthritis include histoplasma, coccidiomyces, and blastomyces.
Though each types of arthritis have specific symptoms but the common symptoms includes joint pains, inflammation, stiffness of the joints and limited functions, redness, warmth, fever, gland swelling (swollen lymph nodes), weight loss, fatigue, sleeplessness, malady and improper functions of other body organs (in kinds of arthritis like rheumatoid and infectious arthritis).
The severity of arthritis can make you disable if it is remain untreated or it is a form of untreatable disease. The severe form of arthritis can also trigger to an increased risk of obesity, high cholesterol or vulnerability to heart disease. The fear of worsening the symptoms can also lead any patient towards depression.
Arthritis can be diagnosed by viewing the signs and symptoms of the disease and by clinical examination and laboratory tests. Severe pain, swelling in the joints, redness, tenderness and immobility of the joints are common symptoms to diagnose arthritis. To assure the types of arthritis, there is a need for clinical examination and laboratory tests like radiography, joints x-ray, and blood and fluids around the inflammation area tests etc.
There is no absolute cure of some forms of arthritis in allopathic medicine systems but it can be manageable and can also be preventable up to some extents except autoimmune-triggered arthritis and trauma arthritis. Some medicine systems like Ayurvedic, Unani, Yoga and naturopathy claims to cure the rare forms of arthritis, which are untreatable in Allopathic medical system.
Surgeries are also performed in some forms of arthritis like Osteoarthritis and traumatic arthritis in which the affected joints can be make more movable and functional.
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